General rules

  1. The author is responsible to provide references for material that is quoted or referred to in the text. Japan Harvest bases our referencing on the Chicago Manual of Style to standardize citations. See the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide for specific guidance. Please be aware that our house style is slightly different in some instances.
  2. Number endnotes consecutively from beginning to end of article.
  3. References should be linked to the text by superscript numbers in-text. These numbers generally follow a quotation, are at the end of a sentence, or clause. They should be placed after any punctuation except for the dash.

e.g. They cover basic,1 intermediate,2 and advanced Japanese grammar,3 with entries listed in alphabetical order (the advanced volume has an index for all three volumes).
e.g. Recent studies have shown that we can actually interfere with the emotional process during what is known as the “emotional generation timeline.”3

  1. Japan Harvest is not an academic or theological publication. Therefore referencing is kept to a minimum. We reference quotations, historical concepts and facts that aren’t widely known, facts based on another writer’s original research, references to published documents and controversial statements. See here for further information:

Source examples

Books and magazines

  1. Harold G. Henderson, An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Basho to Shiki (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958), 124.
  2. L. Clauson, “Religious Imagery in Dylan’s Later Songs,” Poetry and Christianity 16 (Summer 2001), 110.
  3. Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Possessed (New York: Signet Classics, 1962), 224.
  4. Clauson, “Religious Imagery in Dylan’s Later Songs,” 112.
  5. Abe Yoshio 阿部善雄, and Kaneko Hideo 金子英生, 最後の「日本人」 : 朝河貫一の生涯 [The last ‘Japanese’: Life of Kan’ichi Asakawa] ( Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, 1983), 55.
  6. Nakamura Satoshi 中村敏, 揺れ動く時代におけるキリスト者の使命:日本はどこへ行き、私たちはどこに立つのか? [Christians’ calling in an age that is being shaken up: Where is Japan heading, and where do we stand?] (Japan: Inochi no kotoba sha, 2016), 112-113.


  1. E. Ediger, “You Can’t Kid a Quilter,” from “Quilting Graffiti,” Quilters Anonymous online magazine, from Quilting Monthly, (2 December 2001).
  2. Ken Stephens and David Shepherd, “A Brief History of Nashville Publishing,”, 20 April 2000 (accessed June 20, 2001).
  3. Shawn L. Stanford, “A Meeting of the Minds: Creation of the Arizona Constitution,” Web-based article taken from the Introduction to Liberty and Justice: The Writing of the Arizona State Constitution, http// (Phoenix: Published for the Arizona Constitutional Preservation Administration by the State of Arizona Archives Trust Fund Board, Arizona Archives and Records Foundation, 1998).
  4. Japanese website: Author in romaji and kanji if available,  Title of article. Title of website in English with “Japanese website” included in round brackets after title. Link (When published or when accessed). 

e.g. “北海道三笠高等学校,” Wikipedia,  北海道三笠高等学校. (accessed June 24, 2018).

e.g. Nihon Kanzen Shinbun, “Over 40% of Japanese high school students sleep in class” (Japanese website), (April 7, 2010).


For a Kindle, iPad or other electronic version, list the author, title, publisher data, the device version, and the major sections (chapter, section, and paragraph number; abbreviate if titles are long).

  1. Roger J. Davies and Osamu Ikeno, The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture, (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 2002), Kindle DX version, Chapter __, Section __, para. __.
  2. Davies and Ikeno, The Japanese Mind, Chapter __, Section __, para. __.

Scripture References

  1. When quoting Scripture, place the period after the parentheses containing the reference. If the quotation ends in a question or exclamation point, place it with the text and place a period after the last parenthesis.
    “Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord” (Phil. 3:1 NIV 1984).
    “When Peter saw him, he asked, “Lord, what about him?” (John 21:21 NIV).
  2. If an author uses the same Bible version for all the quotes in an article, only cite the first one. If more than one version is used, each Scripture quotation must reference the Bible version.

For abbreviations of Bible books, see Goss and Goss.